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世界大师原典文库精选第一辑套装共12册电子版免费阅读

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世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版)

世界大师原典文库精选第一辑套装共12册是一款非常经典的丛书,包含了论自由,社会契约论,杰斐逊选集,联邦党人文集,时间机器,大学的理念等等,全都 是世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版),英文原版,学习外语必备。

世界大师原典文库精选第一辑套装共12册电子版免费阅读

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内容简介

政治学(世界大师原典文库(中文导读插图版))

《政治学》是公元前325年亚里士多德根据他和他的学生对希腊158个城邦政治法律制度的调查结果写成的。概括而言,本书主要内容和理论贡献有以下几点:使政治学成为独立的学科,开创政治学研究之先;重经验研究方法,把神学束缚下的政治学转变为以人为中心的政治学;提出了理想的政体模式――中产阶级占主体的共和制;主张通过公民教育和培养实现城邦生活的完善与和谐。

联邦党人文集(世界大师原典文库(中文导读插图版))上下

《联邦党人文集》是亚历山大・汉密尔顿、约翰・杰伊、和詹姆斯・麦迪逊三人为争取批准新宪法在纽约报刊上共以“普布利乌斯”为笔名而发表的一系列的论文文集。1787年费城举行的全国代表会议制定了一部新宪法。但是,在各州的批准过程中,对新宪法有两种截然相反的意见:一种拥护,一种反对。因此就发生了美国历史上一场最激烈的论战。本书就是这次论战的产物。

社会契约论(世界大师原典文库(中文导读插图版))

《社会契约论》是一部政治哲学著作,主要探讨政治权利的原理,主旨是为人民民主主权的建立奠定理论基础。社会契约论分为四卷。第一卷论述社会结构和社会契约;第二卷阐述主权及其权利;第三卷阐述政府及其运作形式;第四卷讨论几种社会组织。书中主权在民的思想,是现代民主制度的基石,美国的《独立宣言》和法国的《人权宣言》及两国的宪法均体现了《社会契约论》的民主思想。

杰斐逊选集(世界大师原典文库(中文导读插图版))上、下

《杰斐逊选集》内容包括:托马斯・杰斐逊自传、杂记、旅行日记、论文、名人生平速写、弗吉尼亚笔记、政府文件,其中政府文件有:英属美利坚权利概观、建立宗教自由法案、关于西部土地组建的报告、国务卿的意见、第一次就职演说、给丹伯里洗礼派协会的回信、对印第安人的讲话等。以及书信,包括致约翰・哈维、致约翰・佩奇、致威廉・斯莫尔博士、致马撒・杰斐逊、致约翰・杰伊、致小伦道夫等。

论自由(世界大师原典文库(中文导读插图版))

全书中心论题有三个:(1)论思想自由和讨论自由;(2)论个性自由;(3)论社会对个人自由的控制。该书共5章,以公民自由为中心,对自由问题进行了多方面的阐述。书中论述资本主义制度下的公民自由权利,阐明“社会所能合法施用于个人的权力的性质和限度”,并提出了自由的各项“原则”。该书是自由理论体系的集大成之作,论述了资本主义制度下的公民自由权利,在西方被高度评价为“对个人自由最动人心弦,最强有力的辩护”。

人性论(上下)(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

《人性论》(上,下)是休谟一生中最重要的著作。书中作者试图通过对人性的研究来揭示制约人的理智、情感和道德行为的准则。全书分为三卷:“论知性”,阐述了他的怀疑论和经验主义认识论;第二卷“论情感”,提出情感而非理性是善和美的基础;第三卷“论道德”,论述了快乐论、功利论的伦理学理论以及人性论、约定论的政治学理论。

道德情操论(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

《道德情操论》是亚当・斯密的伦理学著作,他一生中共修订过六次。斯密从人类的情感和同情心出发,讨论了善恶、美丑、正义、责任等一系列概念,进而揭示出人类社会赖以维系、和谐发展的秘密。《道德情操论》对于促进人类福利这一更大的社会目的起到了更为基本的作用,是市场经济良性运行不可或缺的“圣经”,堪称西方世界的《论语》。

大学的理念(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

《大学的理想》是西方高等教育史上较早系统、综合、全面地论述大学教育的基本理论问题的名著。在书中,纽曼对自由教育做出了新的界定,对自由教育与专业教育的关系进行了详细的探讨,阐述自由教育的本质和作用,说明大学教育的实质、任务和理想。书中倡导的以古典人文学科教育为主要内容和以注重理性的开发为主要内涵的自由教育理想,在当时及其以后都对世界教育的发展产生了广泛而深远的影响。

时间机器(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

《时间机器》是世界科幻小说史上第一部以时间旅行为题材的作品。文中威尔斯以一种荒凉、哀伤的笔触给人们展示了一次震撼人心的时间旅行。书中描写的未来世界,人类正逐渐走向没落,曾经辉煌的科技、文化及固有的价值观、道德观全部土崩瓦解,由于长期的阶级分化,剥削阶级和被剥削阶级竟然进化成了两类截然不同的生物,相互之间不可理喻,充满仇杀。在这部小说里,作者用幻想和寓言的方式预示了劳动者和剥削者冲突加剧所可能造成的后果。故事情节引人人胜,充满惊险和悬疑。

文化与无政府状态(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

《文化与无政府状态》一书中,作者把维多利亚时代的英国人分称为野蛮人(贵族)、非利士人(中产阶级)和群氓(平民),严厉抨击了他们的自满、庸俗和拜金主义,倡导以美与智的文化。通过阅读、观察和思考通向天道和神的意旨来对抗随心所欲、我行我素的个人主义与工业主义所导致的缺乏秩序、准则和方向感的无政府状态,以期实现“文化、人性整体和谐、全面发展的完美”,从而确立国家的观念、集体的最优秀的自我,和民族的健全理智。

人类理解论(上、下)(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

《人性理解论》是英国经验论哲学的代表作。洛克对真理的执着、以事实为据、对情感持疑以及他的忍耐力都在这部著作中表现得十分明显。在书中,洛克提出了第一性的质与第二性的质、简单观念与复杂观念的学说,论述了知识的本性、形成、等级和范围等问题。

培根论说文集(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

《散文集》收集了他长达二十八年的间歇创作,涉及荣誉、财富、爱情、名声、雄心和友谊等人类生活和感的各个方面,其精辟理智的见解和冷静雄犀的笔调使其成为人类文学史和思想史的重要著作,也是至今最出色和流传最广的人文作品之一。

目录大全

总目录

大学的理念(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

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书名页

编委会

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目录

Preface

University Teaching

Discourse Ⅰ Introductory

Discourse Ⅱ Theology―A Branch of Knowledge

Discourse Ⅲ Bearing of Theology on Other Branches of Knowledge

Discourse Ⅳ Bearing of Other Branches of Knowledge on Theology

Discourse Ⅴ Knowledge Its Own End

Discourse Ⅵ Knowledge Viewed in Relation to Learning

Discourse Ⅶ Knowledge Viewed in Relation to Professional Skill

Discourse Ⅷ Knowledge Viewed in Relation to Religion

Discourse Ⅸ Duties of the Church Towards Knowledge

University Subjects ―Discussed in Occasional Lectures and Essays

Introductory Letter

Lecture Ⅰ Christianity and Letters ―A Lecture in the School of Philosophy and Letters

Lecture Ⅱ Literature ―A Lecture in the School of Philosophy and Letters

Lecture Ⅲ English Catholic Literature

Lecture Ⅳ Elementary Studies

Lecture Ⅴ A Form of Infidelity of the Day

Lecture Ⅵ University Preaching

Lecture Ⅶ Christianity and Physical Science -A Lecture in the School of Medicine

Lecture Ⅷ Christianity and Scientific Investigation -A Lecture Written for the School of Science

Lecture Ⅸ Discipline of Mind -An Address to the Evening Classes

Lecture Ⅹ Christianity and Medical Science ―An Address to the Students of Medicine

Note on Page 420

中国人民大学出版社外语出版分社读者信息反馈表

道德情操论:英文

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一、背景介绍

二、概念解析

三、文本梳理

四、简要评价

目录

Part Ⅰ Of the Propriety of Action

Section Ⅰ Of the Sense of Propriety

Section Ⅱ Of the Degrees of the Different Passions Which Are Consistent with Propriety

Section Ⅲ Of the Effects of Prosperity and Adversity upon the Judgment of Mankind with regard to the Propriety of Action; and why it is more easy to obtain their Approbation in the one state than in the other

Part Ⅱ Of Merit and Demerit; or, of the Objects of Reward

Section Ⅰ Of the Sense of Merit and Demerit

Section Ⅱ Of Justice and Benef icence

Section Ⅲ Of the Influence of Fortune upon the Sentiments of Mankind, with regard to the Merit or Demerit of Actions

Part Ⅲ Of the Foundation of Our Judgments Concerning Our Own Sentiments and Conduct, and of the Sense of Duty

Part Ⅳ Of the Effect of Utility upon the Sentiment of Approbation

Part Ⅴ Of the Influence of Custom and Fashion upon the Sentiments of Moral Approbation and Disapprobation

Part Ⅵ Of the Character of Virtue

Section Ⅰ Of the Character of the Individual, so far as it affects his own Happiness; or of Prudence

Section Ⅱ Of the Character of the Individual, so far as it can affect the Happiness of other People

Section Ⅲ Of Self-command

Conclusion of the Six Part

Part Ⅶ Of Systems of Moral Philosophy

Section Ⅰ Of the Questions which ought to be examined in a Theory of Moral Sentiments

Section Ⅱ Of the different Accounts which have been given of the Nature of Virtue

Section Ⅲ Of the different Systems which have been formed concerning the Principle of Approbation

Section Ⅳ Of the Manner in which different Authors have treated of the practical Rules of Morality

联邦党人文集(世界大师原典文库(中文导读插图版))上下

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FEDERALIST No. 1 General Introduction

FEDERALIST No. 2 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence

FEDERALIST No. 3 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence)

FEDERALIST No. 4 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence)

FEDERALIST No. 5 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence)

FEDERALIST No. 6 Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States

FEDERALIST No. 7 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States)

FEDERALIST No. 8 The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States

FEDERALIST No. 9 The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection

FEDERALIST No. 10 The Same Subject Continued (The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection)

FEDERALIST No. 11 The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy

FEDERALIST No. 12 The Utility of the Union in Respect to Revenue

FEDERALIST No. 13 Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government

FEDERALIST No. 14 Objections to the Proposed Constitution from Extent of Territory Answered

FEDERALIST No. 15 The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

FEDERALIST No. 16 The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)

FEDERALIST No. 17 The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)

FEDERALIST No. 18 The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)

FEDERALIST No. 19 The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)

FEDERALIST No. 20 The Same Subject Continued (The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union)

FEDERALIST No. 21 Other Defects of the Present Confederation

FEDERALIST No. 22 The Same Subject Continued (Other Defects of the Present Confederation)

FEDERALIST No. 23 The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union

FEDERALIST No. 24 The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered

FEDERALIST No. 25 The Same Subject Continued (The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered)

FEDERALIST No. 26 The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered

FEDERALIST No. 27 The Same Subject Continued (The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered)

FEDERALIST No. 28 The Same Subject Continued (The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered)

FEDERALIST No. 29 Concerning the Militia

FEDERALIST No. 30 Concerning the General Power of Taxation

FEDERALIST No. 31 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)

FEDERALIST No. 32 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)

FEDERALIST No. 33 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)

FEDERALIST No. 34 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)

FEDERALIST No. 35 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)

FEDERALIST No. 36 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the General Power of Taxation)

FEDERALIST No. 37 Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government

FEDERALIST No. 38 The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed

FEDERALIST No. 39 The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles

FEDERALIST No. 40 On the Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained

FEDERALIST No. 41 General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution

FEDERALIST No. 42 The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered

FEDERALIST No. 43 The Same Subject Continued (The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered)

FEDERALIST No. 44 Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States

FEDERALIST No. 45 The Alleged Danger from the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered

FEDERALIST No. 46 The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared

FEDERALIST No. 47 The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts

FEDERALIST No. 48 These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control over Each Other

FEDERALIST No. 49 Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government by Appealing to the People Through a Convention

FEDERALIST No. 50 Periodical Appeals to the People Considered

FEDERALIST No. 51 The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments

FEDERALIST No. 52 The House of Representatives

FEDERALIST No. 53 The Same Subject Continued (The House of Representatives)

FEDERALIST No. 54 The Apportionment of Members Among the States

FEDERALIST No. 55 The Total Number of the House of Representatives

FEDERALIST No. 56 The Same Subject Continued (The Total Number of the House of Representatives)

FEDERALIST No. 57 The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many Considered in Connection with Representation

FEDERALIST No. 58 Objection That the Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered

FEDERALIST No. 59 Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

FEDERALIST No. 60 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members)

FEDERALIST No. 61 The Same Subject Continued (Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members)

FEDERALIST No. 62 The Senate

FEDERALIST No. 63 The Senate Continued

FEDERALIST No. 64 The Powers of the Senate

FEDERALIST No. 65 The Powers of the Senate Continued

FEDERALIST No. 66 Objections to the Power of the Senate to Sit as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered

FEDERALIST No. 67 The Executive Department

FEDERALIST No. 68 The Mode of Electing the President

FEDERALIST No. 69 The Real Character of the Executive

FEDERALIST No. 70 The Executive Department Further Considered

FEDERALIST No. 71 The Duration in Office of the Executive

FEDERALIST No. 72 The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered

FEDERALIST No. 73 The Provision for the Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power

FEDERALIST No. 74 The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive

FEDERALIST No. 75 The Treaty-Making Power of the Executive

FEDERALIST No. 76 The Appointing Power of the Executive

FEDERALIST No. 77 The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered

FEDERALIST No. 78 The Judiciary Department

FEDERALIST No. 79 The Judiciary Continued

FEDERALIST No. 80 The Powers of the Judiciary

FEDERALIST No. 81 The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority

FEDERALIST No. 82 The Judiciary Continued

FEDERALIST No. 83 The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury

FEDERALIST No. 84 Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered

FEDERALIST No. 85 Concluding Remarks

Appendixes

The Declaration of Independence

The Articles of Confederation

The Constitution of The United States of America

文化与无政府状态(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

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Preface

Introduction

Chapter I

Chapter II

Chapter III

Chapter IV

Chapter V

Chapter VI

Conclusion

论自由(世界大师原典文库(中文导读插图版))

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目录

Chapter 1 Introductory

Chapter 2 Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion

Chapter 3 Of Individuality, as One of the Elements of Well-being

Chapter 4 Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual

Chapter 5 Applications

培根论说文集

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INTRODUCTION

To the Right Honourable my very good lord the Duke of Buckingham his Grace, Lord High Admiral of England

1 Of Studies

2 Of Truth

3 Of Death

4 Of Unity in Religion

5 Of Revenge

6 Of Adversity

7 Of Simulation & Dissimulation

8 Of Parents & Children

9 Of Marriage & Single Life

10 Of Envy

11 Of Love

12 Of Great Place

13 Of Boldness

14 Of Goodness, & Goodness of Nature

15 Of Nobility

16 Of Seditions & Troubles

17 Of Atheism

18 Of Superstition

19 Of Travel

20 Of Empire

21 Of Counsel

22 Of Delays

23 Of Cunning

24 Of Wisdom for a Man's Self

25 Of Innovations

26 Of Dispatch

27 Of Seeming Wise

28 Of Friendship

29 Of Expense

30 Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms & Estates

31 Of Regiment of Health

32 Of Suspicion

33 Of Discourse

34 Of Plantations

35 Of Riches

36 Of Prophecies

37 Of Ambition

38 Of Masques & Triumphs

39 Of Nature in Men

40 Of Custom & Education

41 Of Fortune

42 Of Usury

43 Of Youth & Age

44 Of Beauty

45 Of Deformity

46 Of Building

47 Of Gardens

48 Of Negotiating

49 Of Followers & Friends

50 Of Suitors

51 Of Faction

52 Of Ceremonies & Respects

53 Of Praise

54 Of Vainglory

55 Of Honour & Reputation

56 Of Judicature

57 Of Anger

58 Of Vicissitude of Things

A Fragment of An Essay of Fame

人类理解论(上下)

人类理解论(上)

Chronology

The Epistle Dedicatory

The Epistle to the Reader

BOOK I: Of Innate Notions

Chapter I Introduction

Chapter II No Innate Principles in the Mind

Chapter III No Innate Practical Principles

Chapter IV Other Considerations concerning Innate Principles, both Speculative and Practical

BOOK II: Of Ideas

Chapter I Of Ideas in General, and their Original Chapter II Of Simple Ideas

Chapter II Of Simple Ideas

Chapter III Of Ideas of One Sense

Chapter IV Of Solidity

Chapter V Of Simple Ideas of Divers Senses

Chapter VI Of Simple Ideas of Reflection

Chapter VII Of Simple Ideas of both Sensation and Reflection

Chapter VIII Some further Considerations concerning our Simple Ideas

Chapter IX Of Perception

Chapter X Of Retention

Chapter XI Of Discerning, and other Operations of the Mind

Chapter XII Of Complex Ideas

Chapter XIII Of Simple Modes; and first, of the Simple Modes of Space

Chapter XIV Of Duration, and its Simple Modes

Chapter XV Of Duration and Expansion, considered together

Chapter XVI Of Number

Chapter XVII Of Infinity

Chapter XVIII Of other Simple Modes

Chapter XIX Of the Modes of Thinking

Chapter XX Of Modes of Pleasure and Pain

Chapter XXI Of Power

Chapter XXII Of Mixed Modes

Chapter XXIII Of our Complex Ideas of Substances

Chapter XXIV Of Collective Ideas of Substances

Chapter XXV Of Relation

Chapter XXVI Of Cause and Effect, and other Relations

Chapter XXVII Of Identity and Diversity

Chapter XXVIII Of other Relations

Chapter XXIX Of Clear and Obscure, Distinct and Confused Ideas

Chapter XXX Of Real and Fantastical Ideas

Chapter XXXI Of Adequate and Inadequate Ideas

Chapter XXXII Of True and False Ideas

Chapter XXXIII Of the Association of Ideas

人类理解论(下)

BOOK III:Of Words

Chapter I Of Words or Language in General

Chapter II Of the Signification of Words

Chapter III Of General Terms

Chapter IV Of the Names of Simple Ideas

Chapter V Of the Names of Mixed Modes and Relations

Chapter VI Of the Names of Substances

Chapter VII Of Particles

Chapter VIII Of Abstract and Concrete Terms

Chapter IX Of the Imperfection of Words

Chapter X Of the Abuse of Words

Chapter XI Of the Remedies of the foregoing Imperfections and Abuses

BOOK IV:Of Knowledge and Opinion

Chapter I Of Knowledge in General

Chapter II Of the Degrees of our Knowledge

Chapter III Of the Extent of Human Knowledge

Chapter IV Of the Reality of Knowledge

Chapter V Of Truth in General

Chapter VI Of Universal Propositions, their Truth and Certainty

Chapter VII Of Maxims

Chapter VIII Of Trifling Propositions

Chapter IX Of our Knowledge of Existence

Chapter X Of our Knowledge of the Existence of a God

Chapter XI Of our Knowledge of the Existence of other Things

Chapter XII Of the Improvement of our Knowledge

Chapter XIII Some further Considerations concerning our Knowledge

Chapter XIV Of Judgment

Chapter XV Of Probability

Chapter XVI Of the Degrees of Assent

Chapter XVII Of Reason

Chapter XVIII Of Faith and Reason, and their Distinct Provinces

Chapter XIX Of Enthusiasm

Chapter XX Of Wrong Assent, or Error

Chapter XXI Of the Division of the Sciences

导 读

政治学

封面

书名页

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导读

目录

BOOK ONE

BOOK TWO

BOOK THREE

BOOK FOUR

BOOK FIVE

BOOK SIX

BOOK SEVEN

BOOK EIGHT

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扉页-上册

上册目录

Autobiography

The Anas

Travel Journals

Essay on Anglo-Saxon

Biographical Sketches

Notes on Virginia

Public Papers

A Summary View of the Rights of British America, 1774

An Act for Establishing Religious Freedom [1779], passed in the Assembly of Virginia in the beginning of the year 1786

Report of Government for the Western Territory. March 22, 1784

Opinion upon the question whether the President should veto the Bill, declaring that the seat of government shall be transferred to the Potomac, in the year 1790. July 15,1790

March 18, 1792. Paper on the rights to navigate the Mississippi.

Opinion on the question whether the United States have a right to renounce their treaties with France, or to hold them suspended till the government of that country shall be established. April 28, 1793

Report on the privileges and restrictions on the commerce of the United States in foreign countries. December 16, 1793

Inauguration Address. March 4, 1801

First Annual Message. ―December 8, 1801

Messrs. Nehemiah Dodge, Ephraim Robbins, and Stephen S.Nelson, A Committee of the Danbury Baptist Association, in the State of Connecticut. Washington, January 1, 1802

Washington, January 7, 1802

Second Annual Message. December 15, 1802

Third Annual Message. ―October 17, 1803

Fourth Annual Message. ―November 8, 1804

Second Inaugural Address. ―March 4, 1805

To the General Assembly of North Carolina.Washington, January 10, 1808

To the Society of Tammany, or Columbian Order, No.1,of the City of New York. Washington, February 29, 1808

Eighth Annual Message. ―November 8, 1808

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Letters

TO JOHN HARVIE

TO JOHN PAGE

TO JOHN PAGE

TO JOHN PAGE

TO ROBERT SKIPWITH

TO DR. WILLIAM SMALL

TO JOHN RANDOLPH, ESQ.

TO FRANCIS EPPES

TO [JOHN FABRONI]

TO COLONEL JAMES MONROE

TO FRAN?OIS JEAN, CHEVALIER DE CHASTELLUX

TO MARTHA JEFFERSON

TO COLONEL MONROE

TO DR. PRICE

TO THE COUNT DE VERGENNES

TO MRS. TRIST

TO PETER CARR

TO JOHN JAY

TO BARON GEISMER

TO JAMES MADISON

TO MR. BELLINI

TO HOGENDORP

TO J. BANISTER, JUNIOR

TO REVEREND JAMES MADISON

TO A. STUART, ESQ.

TO JAMES MADISON

TO JOHN PAGE

TO MR. WYTHE

TO MRS. COSWAY

TO JAMES MADISON

TO JOHN JAY

TO MONSIEUR DE CREVE-COEUR

TO COLONEL EDWARD CARRINGTON

TO JAMES MADISON

TO MADAME LA COMTESSE DE TESS?

TO MARTHA JEFFERSON

TO MARTHA JEFFERSON

TO THE MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE

TO JAMES MADISON

TO T. M. RANDOLPH, JUNIOR

TO EDWARD CARRINGTON

TO COLONEL MONROE

TO PETER CARR

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO COLONEL SMITH

TO JAMES MADISON

TO E. CARRINGTON

TO MR. A. DONALD

TO THE COUNT DE MOUSTIER

TO WILLIAM CARMICHAEL

TO COLONEL CARRINGTON

TO MR. IZARD

TO E. KUTLEDGE

TO MR. CUTTING

TO JAMES MADISON

TO JAMES MADISON

TO DR. PRICE

TO JOHN JAY

TO FRANCIS HOPKINSON

TO JAMES MADISON

TO COLONEL HUMPHREYS

TO DOCTOR WILLARD

TO GENERAL WASHINGTON

TO MONSIEUR DE ST. ETIENNE

TO JOHN JAY

TO JOHN JAY

TO THOMAS PAINE

TO JOHN JAY

TO JAMES MADISON

TO WM. HUNTER, ESQ., MAYOR OF ALEXANDRIA

TO THE MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE

TO MARIA JEFFERSON

TO MR. THOMAS MANN RANDOLPH

TO JOHN GARLAND JEFFERSON

TO MARIA JEFFERSON

TO COUNT DE MOUSTIER

TO MARTHA JEFFERSON RANDOLPH

TO MR. HAZARD

TO MAJOR L’ENFANT

TO THOMAS MANN RANDOLPH

TO T. M. RANDOLPH

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO WILLIAM SHORT

TO BENJAMIN BANNEKER

TO MARTHA JEFFERSON RANDOLPH

TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

TO THOMAS PAINE

TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

TO WILLIAM SHORT

TO JAMES MADISON

TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

TO ELI WHITNEY

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO TENCH COXE

TO JAMES MADISON

TO MONSIEUR D’IVERNOIS

TO M. DE MEUSNIER

TO MANN PAGE

TO GEORGE WYTHE

TO PHILIP MAZZEI

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO JAMES MADISON

TO ELBRIDGE GERRY

TO EDWARD RUTLEDGE

TO ELBRIDGE GERRY

TO EDMUND PENDLETON

TO MARIA JEFFERSON EPPES

TO EDMUND RANDOLPH

TO DR. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY

TO DR. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY

TO DR. WILLIAM BACHE

TO SAMUEL ADAMS

TO DR. BENJAMIN RUSH

TO MARTHA JEFFERSON RANDOLPH

TO T. M. RANDOLPH

TO JOHN DICKINSON

TO DR. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY

TO SAMUEL ADAMS

TO ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON

TO THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY (ALBERT GALLATIN)

TO DOCTOR BENJAMIN RUSH

TO GENERAL HORATIO GATES

TO MONSIEUR CABANIS

TO WILSON C. NICHOLAS

TO JEAN BAPTISTE SAY

TO JUDGE JOHN TYLER

TO C. F. C. DE VOLNEY

TO THE CHIEFS OF THE CHEROKEE NATION

TO THE REVEREND DOCTOR G. C. JENNER

TO JOHN NORVELL

TO GOVERNOR JAMES SULLIVAN

TO DOCTOR CASPER WISTAR

TO MONSIEUR DUPONT DE NEMOURS

TO CHARLES PINCKNEY

TO THE PRINCE REGENT OF PORTUGAL

TO MONSIEUR LASTEYRIE

TO THOMAS JEFFERSON RANDOLPH

TO THOMAS LEIPER

TO JOHN HOLLINS

TO M. HENRI GR?GOIRE, ?V?QUE ET S?NATEUR ? PARIS

TO MONSIEUR DUPONT DE NEMOURS

TO THE INHABITANTS OF ALBEMARLE COUNTY, IN VIRGINIA

TO JOHN WYCHE

TO DOCTOR B. S. BARTON

TO REV. SAMUEL KNOX

TO GENERAL THADDEUS KOSCIUSKO

TO GOVERNOR JOHN LANGDON

TO GOVERNOR JOHN TYLER

TO COLONEL WILLIAM DUANE

TO J. B. COLVIN

TO DR. BENJAMIN RUSH

TO COLONEL WILLIAM DUANE

TO DR. BENJAMIN RUSH

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO F. A. VAN DER KEMP

TO JAMES MAURY

TO JOHN MELISH

TO COLONEL WILLIAM DUANE

TO COLONEL WILLIAM DUANE

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO DR. SAMUEL BROWN

TO ISAAC MCPHERSON

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO DR. THOMAS COOPER

TO MONSIEUR N. G. DUFIEF

TO THOMAS LAW, ESQ.

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO EDWARD COLES

TO PETER CARR

TO DR. THOMAS COOPER

TO SAMUEL H. SMITH, ESQ.

TO WILLIAM SHORT, ESQ.

TO THE MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE

TO JAMES MAURY

TO ALBERT GALLATIN

TO COLONEL CHARLES YANCEY

TO CHARLES THOMSON

TO JOSEPH C. CABELL

TO MR. JOSEPH MILLIGAN

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO JOHN TAYLOR

TO SAMUEL KERCHEVAL

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO MRS. ABIGAIL ADAMS

TO CHARLES THOMSON

TO JOSEPH DELAPLAINE

TO BARON ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT

TO MONSIEUR BARB? DE MARBOIS

TO GEORGE TICKNOR

TO JOHN TRUMBULL

TO COUNT DUGNANI

TO DR. BENJAMIN WATERHOUSE

TO NATHANIEL BURWELL, ESQ.

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO DOCTOR VINE UTLEY

TO MR. LAPORTE

TO WILLIAM SHORT

TO DR. THOMAS COOPER

TO JOHN HOLMES

TO WILLIAM SHORT

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO WILLIAM ROSCOE

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO JAMES SMITH

TO ROBERT WALSH

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO GENERAL SAMUEL SMITH

TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (JAMES MONROE)

TO MONSIEUR A. CORAY

TO THE MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE

TO MR. DAVID HARDING, PRESIDENT OF THE JEFFERSON DEBATING SOCIETY OF HINGHAM

TO MAJOR JOHN CARTWRIGHT

TO HENRY LEE

TO CHARLES SIGOURNEY

TO JOHN ADAMS

TO THOMAS JEFFERSON SMITH

TO HENRY LEE

TO ELLEN W. COOLIDGE

TO DR. JAMES MEASE

TO [GEORGE WASHINGTON LEWIS?]

TO JAMES MADISON

TO ROGER C. WEIGHTMAN

人性论(上下)(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

封面

版权页

目录

导.读

INTRODUCTION

BOOK I OF THE UNDERSTANDING

PART I OF IDEAS, THEIR ORIGIN, COMPOSITION,CONNEXION, ABSTRACTION, ETC.

PART II OF THE IDEAS OF SPACE AND TIME

PART III OF KNOWLEDGE AND PROBABILITY

PART IV OF THE SCEPTICAL AND OTHER SYSTEMS OF PHILOSOPHY

出版说明

BOOK II OF THE PASSIONS

Part I OF PRIDE AND HUMILITY [1]

Part II OF LOVE AND HATRED

Part III OF THE WILL AND DIRECT PASSIONS

BOOK III OF MORALS

ADVERTISEMENT

PART I Of VIRTUE AND VICE IN GENERAL

PART II Of JUSTICE AND INJUSTICE

PART III OF THE OTHER VIRTUES AND VICES

APPENDIX

社会契约论

书名页

版权页

出版说明

目录

导读

FOREWORD

第一卷 导读

BOOK Ⅰ

1.SUBJECT OF THE FIRST BOOK

2.THE FIRST SOCIETIES

3.THE RIGHT OF THE STRONGEST

4.SLAVERY

5.THAT WE MUST ALWAYS GO BACK TO A FIRST CONVENTION

6.THE SOCIAL COMPACT

7.THE SOVEREIGN

8.THE CIVIL STATE

9.REAL PROPERTY

第二卷 导读

BOOK Ⅱ

1.THAT SOVEREIGNTY IS INALIENABLE

2.THAT SOVEREIGNTY IS INDIVISIBLE

3.WHETHER THE GENERAL WILL IS FALLIBLE

4.THE LIMITS OF THE SOVEREIGN POWER

5.THE RIGHT OF LIFE AND DEATH

6.LAW

7.THE LEGISLATOR

8.THE PEOPLE

9.THE PEOPLE (continued)

10.THE PEOPLE (continued)

11.THE VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF LEGISLATION

12.THE DIVISION OF THE LAWS

第三卷 导读

BOOK Ⅲ

1.GOVERNMENT IN GENERAL

2.THE CONSTITUENT PRINCIPLE IN THE VARIOUS FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

3.THE DIVISION OF GOVERNMENTS

4.DEMOCRACY

5.ARISTOCRACY

6.MONARCHY

7.MIXED GOVERNMENTS

8.THAT ALL FORMS OF GOVERNMENT DO NOT SUIT ALL COUNTRIES

9.THE MARKS OF A GOOD GOVERNMENT

10.THE ABUSE OF GOVERNMENT AND ITS TENDENCY TO DEGENERATE

11.THE DEATH OF THE BODY POLITIC

12.HOW THE SOVEREIGN AUTHORITY MAINTAINS ITSELF

13.THE SAME (continued)

14.THE SAME (continued)

15.DEPUTIES OR REPRESENTATIVES

16.THAT THE INSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT IS NOT A CONTRACT

17.THE INSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT

18.HOW TO CHECK THE USURPATIONS OF GOVERNMENT

第四卷 导读

BOOK Ⅳ

1.THAT THE GENERAL WILL IS INDESTRUCTIBLE

2.VOTING

3.ELECTIONS

4.THE ROMAN COMITIA

5.THE TRIBUNATE

6.THE DICTATORSHIP

7.THE CENSORSHIP

8.CIVIL RELIGION

9.CONCLUSION

时间机器(世界・大师・原典・文库(中文导读插图版))

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导读

总目录

时间机器

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目录

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Appendix

14

隐形人

目录

Chapter 1 The Strange Man’s Arrival

Chapter 2 Mr. Teddy Henfrey’s First Impressions

Chapter 3 The Thousand and One Bottles

Chapter 4 Mr. Cuss Interviews the Stranger

Chapter 5 The Burglary at the Vicarage

Chapter 6 The Furniture That Went Mad

Chapter 7 The Unveiling of the Stranger

Chapter 8 In Transit

Chapter 9 Mr. Thomas Marvel

Chapter 10 Mr. Marvel’s Visit to Iping

Chapter 11 In the Coach and Horses

Chapter 12 The Invisible Man Loses His Temper

Chapter 13 Mr. Marvel Discusses His Resignation

Chapter 14 At Port Stowe

Chapter 15 The Man Who Was Running

Chapter 16 In the “Jolly Cricketers”

Chapter 17 Doctor Kemp’s Visitor

Chapter 18 The Invisible Man Sleeps

Chapter 19 Certain First Principles

Chapter 20 At the House in Great Portland Street

Chapter 21 In Oxford Street

Chapter 22 In the Emporium

Chapter 23 In Drury Lane

Chapter 24 The Plan That Failed

Chapter 25 The Hunting of the Invisible Man

Chapter 26 The Wicksteed Murder

Chapter 27 The Seige of Kemp’s House

Chapter 28 The Hunter Hunted

Chapter 29 The Epilogue

世界大师原典文库(中文导读插图版)编委会

精彩试读

《论自由》根据源自其时代的真实而恼人的问题中的例证来讨论社会问题;它的部分原则与结论仍然是有生命力的,因为它们首先是出自一个人生活中所遭遇的尖锐的道德危机,而后则源自这样一种生活:为着具体的事业而工作,做真实的因此有时是危险的决定。穆勒[1]直接思考困扰着他的那些问题,而不是透过由任何教条提供的有色眼镜。他……从根本上粉碎了这些有色眼镜……成为一个有自己主见的真正思想家……穆勒所讨论的问题以及他对这些问题的洞见具有永恒性。

――以赛亚・柏林:《穆勒与生活目的》

密尔的政治思想的最大特色和持久的贡献应该是包含在1859年《论自由》的论文里。《论自由》与弥尔顿的《雅典最高法院法官》比翼成为以英文写作的捍卫自由的经典著作。

――乔治・霍兰・萨拜因

很少人像他那样精力充沛地坚持着道德标准!没有人像他那样热忱地追求着正义!与卢梭相比,他的情感之火似乎烧得苍白无力;但是卢梭的感染力深入人心之处,也正是穆勒提高人们思想境界的地方。和任何人一样,他高举着理性之灯,这盏灯由于他的存在而发出更加璀璨之光!

――哈罗德・拉斯基

在英语世界里没有其他名字能够像密尔那样持续地与自由主义联系起来,也没有某个自由主义的文本像《论自由》那样知名。以赛亚・柏林将密尔描述为“建立现代自由主义……的人”,而《论自由》则是“个人自由问题的经典表述”。这是对他一贯立场的公正表征。

――安东尼・阿巴拉斯特:《西方自由主义的兴衰》

穆勒赞同作为探求手段的自由主义制度,他期望着在人类最佳生活方式上达成共识。他又是一个原始价值多元主义者,肯定人类可以在许多不同的生活中生活得很好。穆勒《论自由》中的方案在这两种哲学之间跛足难行。

――约翰・格雷:《自由主义的两张面孔》

在他著名的《论自由》中,密尔成为永恒的争取言论和行为自由的象征,激励一代又一代世界各地的人们。

――理查德・里弗斯:《约翰・斯图尔特・密尔》

这部写于1859年维多利亚女王统治大英帝国时期的著作,其中提出的观点始终受到人们的争论,即使再进入(它诞生后的)第三个一百年,人们仍然会继续争论。

――乔治・迈尔森:《密尔与〈论自由〉》

里弗斯称为“自由主义的新约全书”的《论自由》是我在课堂上最容易使用的教材之一……任何能够让大学二年级学生兴奋不已的书很可能被职业哲学家看做幼稚肤浅又自命不凡而不屑一顾。但是难道我们不应该根据它能在多长时间里激发人们的辩论来判断政治哲学著作吗?如果按这个标准,《论自由》绝对是经典。

――阿兰・沃尔夫:《被遗忘的哲学家》

约翰・斯图尔特・密尔(John Stuart Mill,1806―1873),著名哲学家、经济学家和思想家,也是一位活跃的社会改良主义者,英国政治改革运动中激进民主主义的先锋,19世纪最富影响力的古典自由主义思想家。

《论自由》一书起始于1854年开始写的一篇短论文。1855年1月,密尔出游意大利。在参观古罗马广场的丘比特神殿时,他决定把这篇文章扩写成一本书。1859年2月,《论自由》面世。[2]该书出版后,反响巨大。“时人约翰・莫利勋爵就说过,《论自由》是有史以来最具有贵族气质的著作之一。不知道哪个时代能有如此薄的一本书,‘曾在当代人的思想中产生如此广泛、如此重要的影响,如同密尔的《论自由》在他那个时代对人的思维和社会所产生的震动一样’。”[3]

1.《论自由》的思想来源

(1)边沁功利主义思想的影响

杰里米・边沁(Jeremy Bentham,1748―1832),英国法理学家、功利主义哲学家、经济学家和社会改革者。

密尔的父亲詹姆斯・密尔[4]是边沁最得力的弟子,因此密尔很早就接触到了边沁的功利主义思想。1821年,密尔15岁的时候开始学习边沁的《立法论》,之后完全皈依了边沁的功利主义思想。密尔自己也说,阅读这本书开启了他生活中的一个新时代,也是他思想上的一个转折点。到后期,密尔修正了边沁的快乐主义哲学,区分了快乐的质量、高尚的与低俗的快乐。密尔的本意是弥补原始学说的缺陷、解决遗留的疑难,结果却使边沁的快乐学说失去了其原来的面貌。这也是为什么学界对密尔的自由理论与功利主义关系存在较大争议的原因。

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